Thursday, October 31, 2019

Co-workers spending too much time on personal devices or social Research Paper

Co-workers spending too much time on personal devices or social networks, leading to distractions in the office - Research Paper Example This paper includes a discussion on some of the ways these devices and social networking websites lead to distractions in offices. The paper also includes a discussion on the ways the use of these devices and social networks can be limited in offices. Introduction In today's faced paced world, the use of technology has become a need for every individual from any field of life. Students, businesspersons, and employees all make use of different types of technologies to carry out their personal and professional activities. However, sometimes use of these technologies at places where they should not be used leads to problems. For example, use of mobile phones and other personal devices at work lead to distractions in offices when people use these devices for personal matters instead of focusing on work and assigned job responsibilities. It has become a critical need for managers and employers to develop and implement such policies at workplaces, which should be able to bring down the use of personal devices at offices. Let us discuss some of the ways personal devices and social networks used by colleagues lead to distractions in offices. Impact of Personal Devices The impact of the use of personal devices, such as, mobile phones, laptops, and disc players in offices is never positive on the efficiency level of employees. The reason is that the use of such devices at workplaces deviate the attention and focus of colleagues away from their job responsibilities, which not only results in decreasing their efficiency level but also shifts down the company’s level of productivity. Companies are at risk of losing millions of dollars each year through decreased level of employee productivity caused by digital distractions (Anderson 1). Some colleagues make personal calls while sitting in their offices because of which they cannot perform their required official tasks within time. For example, if a customer representative officer starts making a long personal call wh ile sitting in office, he/she will not be in the position to focus properly towards the incoming official calls in that time. The result in such cases is late delivery of work to managers or customers. Similarly, some colleagues use laptops in offices for purposes other than the official ones. The result is again delayed completion of assigned tasks. Moreover, some colleagues like to hear songs at workplace using headphones. This also results in distracting their attention away from work. The use of personal devices at work can also lead to severe accidents at the workplace. A number of cases have occurred in the last few years where a minor distraction from official task because of cell phone or other personal devices have resulted in severe workplace accidents. For example, an incident occurred in California in 2007 where an employee responsible for operating the sugarcane-chopping machine in a mill cut his left hand because he put his hand within the choppers unintentionally bein g busy in a personal call while operating the machine. This is just a single case out of many where little distractions have caused major injuries to employees. Such cases speak strongly in favor of putting a complete ban on the use of personal devices at the workplace. Impact of Social Networks The impact of using social networking websites, such as, Facebook or Twitter in offices is also not positive on the efficiency and attention of

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Flaws in Twains The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Essay Example for Free

Flaws in Twains The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Essay Mark Twains novel The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is by any means a classic. However, there are several flaws. First of all the coincidence that everything happens with in my mind detracts some from the story. The other major problem is that the book seems to drag on and on the closer you get to the end, as if Twain had a page quota to fill and was not worried about the story. The other problem brought up on our hand-out was Hucks lack of seriousness in what was a very serious situation for Jim. As for the coincidence part, it appears most obviously as you read towards the end. For example Huck ends up at Aunt Pollys, and I was thinking, yeah right those chances are about one in a million. And then after Huck tells Aunt Polly that he is Tom, Tom shows up uh-huh, I bet. It is things such as those I just mentioned that make it very difficult for me to read a book without becoming frustrated. It is probably because I am used to real life and like it or not real life is just not that perfect. My other gripe was that Twain seems to ramble on and on and on an.. To me it seems as if the story that he was writing became faint shortly after the time when Huck says, Its me. George Jackson, sir(pg. 95). I do have to give him that the feud was interesting filler, but you can only take so much filler. Then when John Wayne (The Duke) and Elvis (The King) come along there seem to be four or five stops along the river that except for one little detail, are the same. Please excuse the jump back, but how coincidental is it that you have a Duke and a King on the same raft in the middle of the Mississippi river (yes I do know they are not really royalty but that does not matter)? Even during all of this complaining I have done I did find humor in such things as when Huck was observing some local loafers and their discussions about borrowing and lending chewing tobacco. Here, gimme back the chaw and you take the plug. (pg. 138). I can just picture four or five guys laying around chewing tobacco with spit/tobacco juice running down their chins, probably in dirty overalls with no shirts on underneath and boots, to complete the look, three or four days of beard waiting to be shaved, and oh yeah, a nice old straw hat. The picture of this I have in my head is just so vivid that it disgusts me now. I think that is one of the reasons this is such a great book, the imagery. The final thing mentioned was Hucks lack of seriousness or that he was too humorous or too wrapped up in fantasy for the situation both he and Jim were in. Here as opposed to the things I attacked above I will have to be on the side of the defense. My foremost reason is that I do not think Huck realizes the seriousness of the predicament. Huck is a boy that lives in Hannibal, MO during the times of the Civil War, he probably does not know any other ways to deal with anyone who is a slave or is trying to escape. Put yourself in his shoes once and think of the trouble you might have. Then think how you would deal with these problems. Would it be in the way many kids do, with a bit of fun to try to alleviate some of the tension? Take the time when Jim thinks Huck is dead and he shows up scaring Jim to the point of carrying out a conversation with a ghost. Jim says I alwuz liked dead people, en done all I could for ? em (pg. 40). Read that section over and see if it does not seem to be in good taste, if you can call anything done by Huck tasteful. I think it does. My final task is to come up with a new ending. I think my ending goes like this: Huck and Jim find the mouth of the Ohio river as planned and venture upstream by any means available. As they continue up the river the bond between the two runaways becomes ever stronger. When they reach the free states and Jim is officially free. After waiting around a while the two begin to get money in any way they can. When it is enough Jim buys his wife and children out of slavery, and Huck takes a cut (not too much, just enough to get home). Once home Huck starts all over with his ever interesting plots (not without the help of Tom Sawyer). Time passes and over the years Huck misses Jim and eventually embarks on a quest. The quest to find Jim. This journey would be much like the journey he and Jim took just a few years ago. This time though, there is no John Wayne and Elvis to make the story drawn out and boring towards the end. Then Huck finds Jim, meets the wife and kids, and goes back home to lead a normal (or as normal as can be) life working as little as possible and living off his $6000.

Sunday, October 27, 2019

The Recycling Of Electronic Waste Environmental Sciences Essay

The Recycling Of Electronic Waste Environmental Sciences Essay Can you imagine todays society without computers? Our use of electronic products has grown substantially and will continue to evolve. As the demand for new and more advanced technology increases, so does the amount of outdated personal computers (PC). However, where do our unwanted computers end up? Yes, computers are convenient when they are functioning, but once they have run their course, then what? Should we just toss them in the trash bin? The optimal alternative is computer recycling. Recycling is beneficial to our environment and humanity by helping conserve energy and reduce landfill space, such as the large landfills in China. Also, computers contain hundreds of chemicals which can migrate into our environment, recycling helps by creating less toxic chemical emissions. Conserving energy is not an easy task since our society is plugged in on a daily basis. Computers are necessary for work, school, shopping, communicating with others, etc. The average desktop computer uses up to 60 to 250 watts of energy when in use. Analog, outdated computers use cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors. The picture in a CRT monitor isnt as sharp and typically uses up more energy than a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). A CRT monitor can use up to 80 watts of energy; while an LCD will use much less at 35 watts. In addition, outdated PCs rely on older processors which consume large amounts of energy. However, there is an afterlife for these dinosaurs. Dell made headline news when Michael Dell announced his company would begin to recycle computer hardware for free even if the consumer would not be purchasing anything new from them. (Dell Inc. does the right thing, 2006) Dell offered consumers the option of recycling their PCs at no cost to them by simply going to their website, p rinting out a prepaid shipping label in order to return their desktops, laptops, printers and/or ink cartridges. After doing so, Dell would be sending out a service to pick up the equipment. Like Dell, many other manufacturers are beginning to acknowledge computers contain many recyclable parts and are de-manufacturing. De-manufacturing is the process by which computers and other electronic equipment are refurbished or broken down to their basic parts. By doing this, manufacturers help conserve energy and raw materials needed to manufacture new computers and electronic equipment. These parts are then reused in upgrading other computers. (Computer recycling guidance, 2007) PC recyclers know that not all parts are recyclable and therefore breakdown each component to maximize recyclability. When computers are disassembled as part of our de-manufacturing program, various components are removed for recycling or reuse. (Computer recycling guidance, 2007) Re-usable materials include ferrou s (iron-based) and non-ferrous metals, glass and various types of plastic. (Computer recycling, 2009) These parts include the heat sink, which keeps the PC processor cool, is made of 95% aluminum, 4% polypropylene plastic (fan) and 1% mixed metal. The power supply unit is made of an 85% steel case and a 15% printed circuit board. The PCs hard drive is where all of the computers files are stored; this is made of 80% aluminum, 15% steel and 5% circuit board. The motherboard, which is the computers platform, consists of a circuit board. The compact disk (CD) drive and case is made up of 50% ferrous metal and 50% plastic resin; while the floppy drive is composed of 95% metal (ferrous and non-ferrous) and 5% circuit board. A large portion of metal comes from the computer case which is 90% steel and 10% ABS or resin plastic (typically varies from model to model). The CRT monitor (CRT TUBE) is 95% glass and 5% ferrous metal. 90% fiberglass or plastic, 5% non-ferrous metal and 5% other rec yclable materials (diodes, etc.) make up the monitor circuit board. The monitor yoke is 75% copper, 10% ferrous metal and 15% plastic (could be recycled, but particles are made too small by the refining process). The monitor case and base are made up of 98% plastic and 2% ferrous metal (screws, etc). 99% plastic resin with PVC and copper cabling make up the keyboard; while 90% plastic 5% circuit board 5% cable (can be recovered) make up the mouse. The degaussing wire used throughout the computer is composed of 95% copper wire and 5% PVC plastic tape. Cables/wires are made of 90% PVC plastic, 5% copper and 5% steel. Holding all of these parts together are various screws which are 100% ferrous metal. (Computer recycling, 2009) Yes, the aforementioned list is detailed and extensive, but it is important to know that although recycling all these parts helps conserve energy, it also helps reduce landfill space. With technology evolving so quickly, we are bombarded by the latest and greatest electronics. Were constantly upgrading from one computer to next; however, there are simple steps we can take in order to maintain our computers working faster, longer. Keeping your computer cool (below 90 degrees) and dust-free the cooling fan from sucking dust and eventually clogging the computer. Clogged ventilation will cause your PC to overheat. If this happens it may burn out and be damaged severely or even rendered unrepairable. Food and drinks should never be placed near a computer. Keeping them far away will prevent an accident from occuring. Any liquid spilled onto your computer will cause electrical damage. In case of an outage, you should always have your PC plugged into a surge protector. Not only does it protect your hardware, but it eliminates wasting energy by the standby power which most computers draw even while they are off. Regularly checking the space available on your hard drive wil l keep new software or graphic files from eating up your surplus. Most importantly, be certain to upgrade your anti-virus protection and anti-spyware programs. Preventive maintenance is key to keeping our computers out of landfills longer. Experts estimate that consumers replaced or retired more than 300 million computers over the past decade, and the recycling industry estimates that about 1 billion computers will become potential scrap by 2010. (Greener computers, 2007) In 2000, 4.6 million tonnes  of electronic waste (e-waste) made their way to U.S. landfills and this number continues to increase. (New war on waste, 2008) Currently, there are more than 10 million computers dumped in landfills yearly. (What to do with tech trash?, 2010) Seeing the need for change, many states and countries are banning computers and TVs from landfills and are asking the government for their support in the matter. The federal government only prohibits large-scale electronic dumping; which means th at groups tossing more than 220 pounds of electronic waste a month must recycle. However, residents and small businesses can, and do, pile old computers into landfills. According to the National Safety Council, only 11 percent of computers get recycled, and small-time consumers alone add 10 million computers to landfills every year. (What to do with tech trash?, 2010) Sadly, e-waste is one of the fastestes growing types of waste which was clear to governments in the United Kingdom, Japan and some U.S. states in 1990. Seeking a resolution, they set up e-waste recycling systems and began exporting their e-waste to developing countries. These countries laws were inadequate in protecting workers and the environment. More often than not, the laws were not enforced. Also, it was much cheaper to recycle waste in developing countries such as China rather than the U.S. pay for the cost of glass-to-glass recycling of computer monitors. E-waste is routinely exported by developed countries to d eveloping ones, often in violation of the international law. (Lynam, 2009) Africa and Asia are the primary countries being utilized for e-dumpping. However, in 2005, there were inspections of 18 European seaports. Inspectors found 47% to be illegal e-waste. In 2003, the United Kingdom illegally shipped 23,000 metric tonnes  of undeclared electronic waste to eastern countries such as, China and India, also Africa. The U.S. collects recycled material and ships 50-80 % of the waste to China. China banned e-waste exportation in 2000, unfortunately, the law is not working and e-waste continually arrives in Guiya of Guangdong Province, which is Chinas main e-waste scrapping centre. As e-waste importing grew in Asia, so did the demand for it. Asian scrap yards discovered valuable substances such as nickle, copper, silicon, gold and iron could be salvaged during the recycling process. But what about the unrecycable materials? Many of these developing countries did not and do not have haza rdous waste facilities. After the e-waste problems of these developed countries were shipped to developing countries where laws to protect workers and the environment were and are inadequate or not enforced, too many of these developing countries discovered their landfills are now plagued with massive amounts of toxins. With profit in mind, some computer manufacturers intentionally produce their products for a short life span and use materials and processes that deter recycling efforts. Toxic e-waste continues to accumulate and is having negative effects on our environment. Currently, less than 10 percent of e-waste produced is reused or recycled. This means that the majority of the e-waste is disposed of in landfills, where it can eventually create health problems through human exposure. (S 510: Electronic waste recycling promotion and consumer protection act, 2006) Designed to process toxins and waste, the essential components of a landfill are the bottom liner system, cells (old and new), storm water drainage system, leachate collection system, methane collection system, and covering or cap. Each of these has its function within the landfill. What separates trash and subsequent leachate from groundwater is the bottom liner system. The cells store the trash within the landfill. Rainfall is collect ed by the storm water drainage system. The leachate collection system collects the water which has percolated through the landfill itself and absorbs contaminating substances. Methane gas which is formed during the breakdown of trash is collected by the methane collection system. The top of the landfill is sealed off by the cap. (S 510: Electronic waste recycling promotion and consumer protection act, 2006) Computers release toxins during their production, use, but most of all, when they have been disposed of in our landfills. Crushed or incinerated e-waste release contaminants, such as chromium, into the air and groundwater. Even with aforementioned systems in place, a leakage in the lining can occur which can cause toxins to evaporate off of the leachate ponds or they might pool at the bottom of the landfill and then be pumped out into a nearby pond. (Environmental facts, 2007) Other toxins which are released into our environment from e-waste are lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, etc. Lead is found in cathode ray tubes and solder. Just one CRT monitor can contain between 4 and 8 pounds of lead. Between 1997 and 2004, 315 million computers became obsolete. This accounted for 1.2 billion pounds of lead being released into the environment through improper disposal in landfills. Lead is one of the most abundant toxic byproducts of e-waste and has many well-documented detrimental human health effects. (S 510: Electronic waste recycling promotion and consumer protection act, 2006) Drinking lead contaminated water can cause brain and nervous system damage. The greatest negative health effect is on children. Hearing, behavior and learning problems have been associated to children exposed to lead. Lead exposed adults may have high blood pressure. They can develop memory, concentration and reproductive problems. Environmental organisms behavioral changes after being exposed to lead lower its chances of reproduction because of physical malformations due to exposure. Al so having a negative effect on our bodies is cadmium. Found in the circuit boards and semi-conductors of computers, cadmium accumulates in our bodies and poisons the kidneys. Even more damaging is chromium, which damages DNA. Exposure to chromium can cause asthma and respiratory problems. Also, exposure to chromium can cause perforated eardrums, discoloration of the teeth, skin irritation, kidney and liver damage, upper abdominal pain, and pulmonary congestion. Once chromium lodges into tissues, it may lead to cancerous growth in the lungs, kidneys, and intestines because they are especially vulnerable. (Environmental facts, 2007) There are studies reporting premature senility as a factor of chromium. Chromium harms our environment by negatively affecting the population of salmon and amphibians in our aquatic ecosystems. Worst yet, chromium IV has been known to cause cancer when inhaled. Out of all these toxins mercury can be deadly. Computers contain mercury in their switches and h ousing. Unlike inhalable chromium, vapors from mercury contaminate the atmosphere and rainfall then causes them to precipitate into the ground. Once in the soil, the processed mercury by bacteria becomes methyl mercury. The new form of mercury is then collected in animals fatty tissues. Methyl mercurys effects are dependent on the amount of exposure. Effects can range from mild to severe. Humans exposed to mercury are unaware they were exposed. Most exposures occur through eating shellfish and fish. Pregnant women should not eat potentially contaminated fish. Doing so may harm the developing fetus since fetuses and infants are most affected by mercury toxins. These toxins have a negative effect on the nervous system. Impaired neurological development affects cognitive abilities, memory, attention, language, and fine motor and spatial skills. Symptoms include insomnia, tremors, headaches, emotional changes, changes in nerve responses, performance deficits on tests of cognitive functi on and disturbances in sensations. (Environmental facts, 2007) With high exposure, mercury can cause respiratory failure, affect the kidneys and cause death. In wildlife, methyl mercury can be mortal, significantly reduce fertility, and slow growth and development. These are just some of the toxins released into our environment, there are more! By opting not to recycle, we are opting on not only damaging our environment to an irreparable state, but killing ourselves. Why wouldnt we want to recycle? In conclusion, there isnt a Federal mandate to recycle e-waste. However, there are many states which have instituted mandatory electronics recovery programs. These programs were put in place by individuals of green states who care enough about themselves and their environment to put a stop to excess e-waste. One thousand or more municipalities offer computer and electronics collections as part of household hazardous waste collections, special events, or other arrangements. In addition, public and private organizations have emerged that accept computers and other electronics for recycling.  They are working on ways to make recycling of electronic waste much more convenient. Depending on where you live and the amount of equipment you have, the best recycling option might be a county recycling drop-off center, TV repair shop, charitable organization, electronics recycling company, or even your local electronics retailer, which might collect used products and send them to a recycler. ( Where can I donate or recycle my old computer and other electronic products?, 2010) Computers can and should be recycled! Recycling unwanted computers is the optimal alternative. If we all do our part and recycle, we can conserve energy, reduce landfill space, and create less toxic chemical emissions. Less electronic waste (e-waste) equals more of our planet saved! Recycling is an excellent and economical way of ultimately achieving this goal. Lets do our part!

Friday, October 25, 2019

A Separate Peace :: Free Essay Writer

A Separate Peace   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Obstacles after obstacles came in the path to success. In the novel A Separate Peace, John Knowles revealed a very strong idea through one of his characters. Through Gene it was revealed that weak individual who once was weak morally and mentally can become a strong and a more matured person. John Knowles revealed this idea through Gene’s perspective; symbolism; and also Gene’s speech/action.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Gene had proved many things through only his perspective. He had intriguing thoughts, which gave many idea’s about Gene post personality and his surroundings. â€Å"Looking back now across fifteen years, I could see with great clarity the fear I had lived in†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Pg.2) This quote thus revealed that Gene was quite a weak individual. For if someone who lives in fear is considered morally weak, scared of the society and shy, insecure and who had a lack of confidence. Which Gene was in the beginning of the novel. â€Å"Yes he had practically saved my life. He had also practically lost it for me.† (Pg. 25) This quote exposed that Gene was in the middle of his mental metamorphosis. Gene in the first part of his quote seemed strong, but when he twisted it to make Finny, his best friend look bad, he still seemed to be morally weak, but in a more stronger moral state then before. â€Å" Now I knew that there never was and never could have been any rivalry between us. I was not of the same quality as he.† (Pg. 51) This quote showed a completely changed Gene. Gene became stronger by realizing the reality, he now had realized that there was no use in competing with anyone. Although this was recognizing Gene’s change only perspective wise.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  There were many deep meanings that Gene had from significant things from his past. The two main significant symbolic things for Gene were the tree and the stairs. â€Å"Although they were old stairs, the worn moons in the middle of each step were not very deep. The marble must be unusually hard†¦.† (Pg. 3) This quote proved that the marble represented some of his so called â€Å"friend†, in other words referred to Brinker and Leper. For they had used him and indirectly killed Finny, who was Gene’s real friend. For the Marble looked rich and good, but it’s real texture was cold and hard, just like Brinker and Leper were, as Gene had found out later on in the story.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Maya Angelou Essay

In researching poet, Maya Angelou, I was able to explore her personal life, as well as her writing styles and techniques. While she is an extraordinary individual, she portrays a strong independent woman capable of holding her own. A great experience in learning about Angelou, the project itself I found to be rather droll. Having to find criticism about one of the worlds greatest poets, was extremely difficult. The assignment was also time consuming, and I found myself often wondering why everything needed doubles. While the information gathered for this project focused on Maya Angelou was engaging, the task in analyzing the poet rather than the poetry, was prolonged and monotonous. Maya Angelou is one of the universe’s most controversial poet. Her fascinating life experiences and thoughts translate beautifully onto paper, and her literary elegance captivates many. In the assignment given, it was asked that two pieces of literary criticism were found. When researching such a profound writer, it was impossible to find complete critical analyses of Angelou’s work. The only thing that was found were rotten comments on a forum, or a general summary of a poems meaning. Undertaking this assignment was very tedious, for even after finding some sort of â€Å"analysis†, it was asked that one write their own poems. This was very difficult for it was difficult to decipher what was really being asked. The expectations were not clear in the way where one should have been writing like their chosen poet, or to write as themselves. Either way, the poems produced in my own assignment, were just thoughts on paper. While Angelou has no set schemes in her work, the self-fabricated poems made, were also set up the same. While it is believed the more that is researched, the more that is known, how this was conveyed in this project was not straightforward. Everything that was assigned, needed to have two or more examples. Whether one chose to look up two biographies and two literary analyses, or two literary analyses and original poems, the duplication in finding two examples was unnecessary. The message could have been depicted through one example each. Finding the information grew to be mundane, and how all of the details found would be gathered into one essay was perplexing. While I believe finding two biographies would be vital if one were to be writing a biography on the poet, It’s almost pointless when you must narrow down the information into a paragraph. Same for the literary analysis. The original poems written almost had nothing to do with the project, which didn’t make much sense. Learning about Maya Angelou was enlightening, and this project allowed me to view her work in a different light. She is able to shine a strong light on herself that sets her apart from the rest. Unfortunately, this assignment didn’t allow more of an assessment on one poem, for one paragraph is not enough to correctly articulate her notions. The project could have been absolutely successful if it had not repeated so many steps in finding the same information in separate places, or writing irrelevant and original poems. In the future, an essay based solely on one poem by an author, with only a paragraph of biographical information would benefit the student. This would allow oneself to look more into the poets techniques, schemes, and deeper meanings.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Free Will And Determinism Essay

The concept of free will plays an important part in our apportioning blame or praise, and our holding persons morally responsible for their behavior and actions. In the philosophical work devoted to free will there is no strict definition of this concept but it is widely believed to be a condition necessary for moral responsibility. Proponents of determinism, libertarianism, and compatibilism explain the importance of free will in their theories each in their particular way (Compatibilism; Lecture Notes on Free Will and Determinism). Silenus Silenus, the central hero of Stephen Robinett’s â€Å"The Satyr† story, can be regarded as a staunch proponent of philosophical hard determinism. Like a true determinist, Silenus, a satyr, does not believe he is responsible for his actions and behavior because he is the creation of another person, namely Hench. He explains his enormous interest in ladies as well as his promiscuous behavior by the fact that Hench gave him the extra Y-chromosome which became a major determinant of his behavior (Robinett). According to the satyr, only human beings can be held responsible for what they do. As Silenus does not consider himself a human being on the one hand, and as he was created by Hench on the other hand, it is the latter that Silenus believes is responsible for him and for anything he does. Silenus maintains that he does not know exactly why he does things and that it is Hench who made him like this, and thus it is Hench who should be held accountable for the way Silenus is and behaves (Robinett). However, nowhere in the story does Silenus give any clear explanation why he believes this. All in all, it is obvious that he does not care about responsibility at all, but considers it a useful, although peculiar, notion, which he often uses to appeal to Hench’s sense of responsibility in order to influence his decisions in his favor. Silenus’ desires and inclinations are caused by factors and circumstances which are outside his control and for which, therefore, he should not be held responsible. All he seems to be interested in is having sex with ladies and taking a drop every now and then. As we know it from the story, his love for ladies is caused by the extra Y-chromosome that Hench gave him. We can also assume that his disposition to alcohol has something to do with the â€Å"material† he was synthesized from, too. From Silenus’ deterministic perspective, it follows that he is not accountable for his decisions and actions as they are not free but are the result of his desires over which he has no control and which he is not able to resist. Libertarians would suggest that Silenus’ actions are actually free, depend on his reason and volition, and are not predetermined by any factors such as the extra Y-chromosome. From the compatibilistic perspective, Silenus’ desires are caused by the above mentioned factors but as he is still free to choose in many situations then he should be held responsible for his actions. There is plenty of evidence in the story that Silenus is able to control his behavior. For example, at Merton’s offices Silenus became interested in the receptionist, â€Å"a bird-legged girl†, who made him sexually excited. When she left him after several awkward attempts to have sex with her, Silenus at first intended to chase her but then decided to let her go (Robinett). Given the influence of the extra Y-chromosome, the receptionist’s body must have clouded Silenus’ mind. However, he was able to control his strong sexual desires at that moment because Hench could hear her screams and come to punish him. Another good example of Silenus’ ability to control his behavior can be seen during the meeting with Merton. Silenus was constantly interrupting Hench while the latter was talking to Merton. When Hench got angry, he told Silenus to be silent or he would punish him later by not feeding him properly. Although Silenus was eager to appear as a disobedient and unreliable creature, he stopped immediately misbehaving himself and annoying Hench because he did want to eat that night. One more example is a clash between Hench and Silenus which broke out when they came home after the appointment with Merton. When Hench slapped Silenus, the satyr felt like grabbing and throwing his creator across the room. But Silenus managed to control his anger because he realized that if he hit Hench he would never convince him not to sell him into slavery (Robinett). All these examples show that Silenus can, if he wishes to, control his behavior. The above mentioned examples of Silenus’ abilities to control his especially violent or unacceptable behavior also show that Silenus is able to draw causal inferences in this story. In these situations he demonstrates his awareness of the possible consequences of his actions (which could be disastrous for him) and decides to avoid them. It follows that in most cases Silenus behaves well or does not do unacceptable actions not out of a sense of deep understanding of the consequences of such behavior and, what is particularly important, responsibility for his actions, but only because he tries to escape punishment. In many other cases (for example, when he forced Audrey to have sex with him), his unacceptable behavior can be explained by the fact that Silenus, as a rational being (and he proves several times in the story that he is indeed a rational being) must realize his moral responsibility for his actions, but also understands that he is likely to escape punishment for them. As a rational being, Silenus is fully capable of drawing causal inferences of his behavior, but his acceptable or unacceptable behavior depends on whether he is likely to be punished for it or experience certain inconveniences because of it and not on his sense of moral responsibility for his actions. In every situation Silenus has the choice whether to follow his inclinations and behave in an unacceptable way or whether to postpone the satisfaction of his desires to a later time. As we can see, in some cases Silenus postpones his intentions to do certain things, but in other situations he prefers to misbehave himself rather than control himself. So in most cases it would be incorrect to conclude that Silenus could not do otherwise than he did. Silenus is in fact a drunk who avoids responsibility for his drinking habits. But the question of Silenus being a drunk should not be restricted only to this vice. He is also fond of having sex and likes being fed well. It would be fairer to describe Silenus as a person who has some bad habits and preferences (like most humans have) and tends to satisfy some of his vicious needs and inclinations but who does not want to be held responsible for his actions. For Silenus, it seems easier to enjoy life and satisfy his desires than to control them and be responsible for his actions. Silenus holds clear deterministic views on the extent of his moral responsibility for his actions. Determinists believe that human behavior, decisions, and actions are determined and caused by prior occurrences (Determinism). If all human actions are predetermined then there is no free will and humans are not morally responsible for what they do. Contemporary determinists also believe that human behavior is determined by some external causes which are beyond man’s control, particularly genetic and environmental factors (Geisler). We do not know exactly whether Robinett’s Silenus has ever heard of determinism and free will, but he successfully applies deterministic views to explain his behavior. He believes his behavior is determined and caused by his genetic constitution that was given to him by Hench and that his inclinations that are caused by this constitution can’t be controlled. Silenus maintains that if he is not responsible for what he is made from, then he can’t be responsible for what he does. Although Silenus’ position about behavior and responsibility corresponds to the views of proponents of determinism, it is obvious that Silenus’ arguments do not at all reflect his philosophical deterministic position in life, but rather are a convenient excuse for shifting moral responsibility for his actions to others. Silenus versus Hench Silenus’ â€Å"I am not responsible for what I am† and Hench’s â€Å"You are responsible for what you do† are in fact compatible. Hench created Silenus with certain predispositions which make him likely to behave and act in a particular way in certain situations. Hench is the author of Silenus’ predispositions and the one who shaped Silenus’ character. Silenus has nothing to do with the â€Å"material† he was made from and he is right when he says that he is not responsible for what he is. But Silenus is also a rational being and in several cases he demonstrates that his decisions are based on reasoning. He is also able to control and guide his behavior. It follows that it is Silenus, not Hench, who can be held responsible for what he does. So both Silenus’ and Hench’s positions are correct and compatible. In this story, the problem is that Silenus is not responsible for what he is and extends this irresponsibility to what he does. In the beginning of the story, Hench agrees with Silenus’ view of the extent of his moral responsibility. In his discussion with Audrey, Hench maintains that as Silenus’ creator he is fully responsible for him. Hench does not consider Silenus a human being and maintains that he is not able to take care of himself and assume responsibility for what he does. Hench even goes so far as to state that he is responsible for everything Silenus is or does because Silenus is exactly what he, Hench, made him (Robinett). However, we can also see Hench criticize Silenus for his unacceptable behavior, because he does not control his desires, and also suggest that Silenus should be responsible for his actions (Robinett). It seems there is a certain contradiction in Hench’s belief of responsibility for Silenus. On the one hand, he feels responsible for Silenus’ actions because he is his creator. On the other hand, although in Hench’s view Silenus is not a human being, he is at least a rational being as he often demonstrates his ability to express thoughts and explain things that are based on reasoning. Hench believes that Silenus should at least try to be responsible for his actions and control them (Robinett). We may assume from what we read in the story that there is some struggle in Hench’s mind as to whether only he should be held responsible for Silenus’ actions or whether this responsibility should be shared between both him and Silenus. As we read on, at the end of the story Hench comes to the conclusion that Silenus should be held accountable for his behavior, too. Although this conclusion is reached on the basis of his personal grievance against Silenus (because Silenus had sex with Audrey), it is clear that now Hench is firm in his opinion that he is responsible for what Silenus is, but not for what Silenus does. Gorr Michael Gorr is a proponent of the compatibilistic theory. Unlike libertarians, who maintain that humans have free will which is incompatible with determinism, compatibilists believe that determinism and free will exist and are in fact compatible ideas. According to this belief, free will is not a person’s ability to make a certain choice independently of prior causes and events, but a person’s ability to choose when he or she is not forced to do it. Compatibilists do not deny that our choices are predetermined, but they emphasize that the choices we make are examples of free will if we are not forced to make them. But if we are forced to make whatever choices we make, then this is an example of a lack of free will (Compatibilism and Incompatibilism). If a person’s action is coerced, then this person is not responsible for it. But if a person’s action is not coerced, that is, under certain circumstances the person can do otherwise, then this person is accountable for the action. Gorr’s compatibilistic position is seen in his example of â€Å"knocking down Jones†. Gorr maintains that in the case where another person pushes him and makes him bump into Jones, he should not be held responsible for his action as its consequence is not a result of his intention or choice. In the case where he deliberately bumps into Jones and injures him, he is accountable for his behavior because he could do otherwise. Gorr states that we are responsible for our actions only when we desire for these actions to occur (Gorr). Gorr accepts, unlike libertarians, the deterministic universal causation, but he rejects the deterministic belief that humans are not to be held responsible for their actions because their actions are determined and caused by factors which are beyond their control. He agrees with Hench who states at the end of the story that Silenus is responsible for his behavior which is the result of his desires even though he is not responsible for his genetic constitution that determines and causes his desires. Gorr maintains that it is not necessary to be responsible for one’s desires in order to be responsible for one’s behavior. For Gorr, it is more important to have control over one’s actions and   not to have control over the causes of these actions. So long as we have control over our actions and it depends on our choice whether these actions will occur or not, Gorr concludes, we are responsible for these actions. And Silenus, regardless of his genetic constitution and environment, should be held responsible for his actions (Gorr). Conclusion We can partly reject determinism as philosophical proposition and do not agree with the belief that whatever we do is predetermined and we can’t control it or do otherwise and are,   therefore, not to be held responsible for what we do. But it seems wrong to reject or neglect the notion of universal causation which determinists believe is integral to their theory. It would be wrong to deny that some events are caused by other preceding events, and the latter were caused by earlier events, and so on. It seems there exists an unbroken causal chain of which humans are part. Similarly, it would be wrong to deny the importance and influence of factors such as heredity or upbringing on how we make our decisions or choose to behave in a particular situation. So every event has its cause and every human action is also caused by certain factors. What does seem important in this case is, as Gorr points out, the difference in the kind of causation (Gorr). Our genetic make-up and the environment are important, but not the only, factors which predetermine or guide our behavior as we can often control them and choose to do otherwise than these factors predispose us to do. Personally, I can’t accept the deterministic position that everything that exists or occurs has a sufficient reason for existing or occurring as it exists or occurs, and not otherwise (Causal Determinism). It is hard to believe that human actions are predetermined, are not free, and can’t be changed (hard determinism), or that there is chance they could be changed (soft determinism). I do not particularly like the idea that since human actions are not free humans are not to be held morally responsible for them because in my view this promotes certain moral chaos. I am not convinced by the indeterministic position that all human acts are uncaused. I share the libertarian belief that humans actually do have free will, but like Gorr, I do not believe it is incompatible with deterministic causation. That is why I am most inclined to accept compatibilism which is something in the middle between determinism and libertarianism and does not disparage deterministic causation and accepts free will, and therefore, moral responsibility. I believe that my actions can be in fact predetermined by several factors, but in many cases I still have the possibility to choose between two and more options, and that I should be held responsible for whatever the consequences of my choice are. BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. Causal Determinism. Retrieved January 27, 2008 from the World Wide Web: 2. Compatibilism. Retrieved January 27, 2008 from the World Wide Web: 3. Compatibilism and Incompatibilism. Retrieved January 27, 2008 from the World Wide Web: 4. Determinism. Retrieved January 27, 2008 from the World Wide Web: 5. Geisler, N. Freedom, Free Will, and Determinism. Retrieved January 27, 2008 from the World Wide Web: 6. Gorr, M. Being and Doing: Some Thoughts about Responsibility. Though Probes. 7. Lecture Notes on Free Will and Determinism. Retrieved January 27, 2008 from the World Wide Web: 8. Robinett, S. The Satyr. Thought Probes.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

A Complete List of Shakespeare’s Plays

A Complete List of Shakespeare’s Plays Scholars of Elizabethan drama believe that William Shakespeare wrote at least 38 plays between 1590 and 1612. These dramatic works encompass a wide range of subjects and styles, from the playful A Midsummer Nights Dream to the gloomy Macbeth. Shakespeares plays can be roughly divided into three genres- comedies, histories, and tragedies- though some works, such as The Tempest and The Winters Tale, straddle the boundaries between these categories. Shakespeares first play is generally believed to be Henry VI Part I, a history play about English politics in the years leading up to the Wars of the Roses. The play was possibly a collaboration between Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe, another Elizabethan dramatist who is best known for his tragedy Doctor Faustus. Shakespeares last play is believed to be The Two Noble Kinsmen, a tragicomedy co-written with John Fletcher in 1613, three years before Shakespeares death. Shakespeare's Plays in Chronological Order The exact order of the composition and performances of Shakespeare’s plays is difficult to prove- and therefore often disputed. The dates listed below are approximate and are based on the general consensus of when the plays were first performed: Henry VI Part I (1589-1590)Henry VI Part II (1590-1591)Henry VI Part III (1590-1591)Richard III (1592-1593)The Comedy of Errors (1592-1593)Titus Andronicus (1593-1594)The Taming of the Shrew (1593-1594)The Two Gentlemen of Verona (1594-1595)Love’s Labour’s Lost (1594-1595)Romeo and Juliet (1594-1595)Richard II (1595-1596)A Midsummer Night’s Dream (1595-1596)King John (1596-1597)The Merchant of Venice (1596-1597)Henry IV Part I (1597-1598)Henry IV Part II (1597-1598)Much Ado About Nothing (1598-1599)Henry V (1598-1599)Julius Caesar (1599-1600)As You Like It (1599-1600)Twelfth Night (1599-1600)Hamlet (1600-1601)The Merry Wives of Windsor (1600-1601)Troilus and Cressida (1601-1602)All’s Well That Ends Well (1602-1603)Measure for Measure (1604-1605)Othello (1604-1605)King Lear (1605-1606)Macbeth (1605-1606)Antony and Cleopatra (1606-1607)Coriolanus (1607-1608)Timon of Athens (1607-1608)Pericles (1608-1609)Cymbeline (1609-1610) The Winter’s Tale (1610-1611)The Tempest (1611-1612)Henry VIII (1612-1613)The Two Noble Kinsmen (1612-1613) Dating the Plays The chronology of Shakespeares plays remains a matter of some scholarly debate. Current consensus is based on a constellation of different data points, including publication information (dates taken from titles pages, etc.), known performance dates, and information from contemporary diaries and other records. Though each play can be assigned a narrow date range, it is impossible to know exactly which year any one of Shakespeares plays was composed. Even when exact performance dates are known, nothing conclusive can be said about when each play was written. Further complicating the matter is the fact that many of Shakespeares plays exist in multiple editions, making it even more difficult to determine when the authoritative versions were completed. For example, there are several surviving versions of Hamlet, three of which were printed in the First Quarto, Second Quarto, and First Folio, respectively. The version printed in the Second Quarto is the longest version of Hamlet, though it does not include over 50 lines that appear in the First Folio version. Modern scholarly editions of the play contain material from multiple sources. Authorship Controversy Another controversial question regarding Shakespeares bibliography is whether the Bard actually authored all of the plays assigned to his name. In the 19th century, a number of literary historians popularized the so-called anti-Stratfordian theory, which held that Shakespeares plays were actually the work of Francis Bacon, Christopher Marlowe, or possibly a group of playwrights. Subsequent scholars, however, have dismissed this theory, and the current consensus is that Shakespeare- the man born in Stratford-upon-Avon in 1564- did in fact write all of the plays that bear his name. Nevertheless, there is strong evidence that some of Shakespeares plays were collaborations. In 2016, a group of scholars performed an analysis of all three parts of Henry VI and came to the conclusion that the play includes the work of Christopher Marlowe. Future editions of the play published by Oxford University Press will credit Marlowe as co-author. Another play, The Two Noble Kinsmen, was co-written with John Fletcher, who also worked with Shakespeare on the lost play Cardenio. Some scholars believe that Shakespeare may have also collaborated with George Peele, an English dramatist and poet; George Wilkins, an English dramatist and inn-keeper; and Thomas Middleton, a successful author of numerous stage works, including comedies, tragedies, and pageants.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Research Paper About Minute Burger Essays

Research Paper About Minute Burger Essays Research Paper About Minute Burger Paper Research Paper About Minute Burger Paper RESEARCH PAPER I. Industry/Company Background Burger Machine is an industry. Minute Burger is an established food franchising company with over 26 years of expertise in the delivery of first-rate food products and food service operations. Since 1982, we have served millions of our on-of-a-kind, hearty, DELICIOUS burgers, in Minute Burger stores all over the Philippines. Today, we continue to explore opportunities and take full advantage of our market potential. We maintain dynamism in developing our product line to suit the various tastes of our growing market. We relentlessly work towards building dependable systems to improve and ensure the highest product and service standards. And, we take our franchising goals a notch higher by jointly envisioning with our partners and by matching our strength with theirs to achieve maximum rewards, not only in our francise business but more importantly, in people’s lives. The market share under the burger on the wheels segment can be described by the following figures based on my observation in today’s market- Minute Burger- 34, Burger Machine-31, Angel’s Burger-21, Buena bonita’s-8 Other’s-6. Minute Burger has now expanded all over the country through franchising. Its franchising package amounting ? 350,000 includes business operations support, management training services and Marketing/ Promotional Support. II. Vision, Mission. Vision By 2020, Minute Burger shall be the Quick Service Food Chain of Choice for the value conscious consumer by providing innovative and environmentally sustainable food products and services that meets global standards through operational excellence; aided by highly competent employees and franchise partners with a shared mind set to create memorable experiences and to also achieve local and international expansion. Mission To create positive customer experience. III. REVISED MISSION STATEMENT 1. CUSTOMER To ensure that each guest receives prompt, professional, friendly and courteous service. To maintain a clean, comfortable and well maintained premises for our guests and staff. 2. PRODUCTS SERVICES To sell delicious and remarkable food and drinks. That the food and drink we sell meets the highest standards of quality, freshness and seasonality and combines both modern-creative and traditional Asian styles of cooking. 3. PHILOSOPHY At Minute Burger, we Believe that Fast Food is about sustaining the satisfaction of people. . EMPLOYEES To provide all who work with us a friendly, cooperative and rewarding environment which encourages long- term, satisfying, growth employment. To keep our concept fresh, exciting and on the cutting edge of the hospitality and entertainment industry. 5. TECHNOLOGY To provide the guests the information about the Minute Burger easier. 6. MARKETS 7. SELF-CONCEPT To ensure that all guests and staff are treated with the respect and dignity they deserve. To than k each guest for the opportunity to serve them. By maintaining these objectives we shall be assured of a fair profit that will allow us to contribute to the community we serve. To provide at a fair price nutritional, well-prepared meals using only quality ingredients. 8. CONCERN FOR PUBLIC IMAGE To actively contribute to sustainable development through environmental protection, social responsibility and economic progress. To us, that means meeting the needs of society today, while respecting the ability of future generations to meet their needs.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Ancient Chinese Culture

The fertile banks of the Tigris, Euphrates and the Indus rivers have produced a rich civilization in the Middle East and India, but the same happened in the Yellow River in China. Civilization and Mesopotamia, the civilizations of Jalapa and Mohenzodaro are not mentioned in the outside world. Yellow River Civilization not only reflects the development of the other two civilizations, it also contributes to its own unique civilization. Communication with West Asia and South Asia of China's geographical location - Qinghai - Tibetan plateau in the west and Takayama in the Gobi desert in the north is difficult. Ancient Chinese culture has a history of more than 5000 years. China's cultural history has very diversity and diversity. Exquisite Chinese civilization is rich in arts and science, exquisite painting and printing technology, exquisite ceramics and sculptures. The architectural tradition of China is highly appreciated all over the world. Chinese and literature, philosophy and polit ics are still considered to have strong influence. Only after Western culture emerged in the middle of the 19th century, Chinese culture succeeded in maintaining its unique identity. Prehistoric Japanese culture began to be influenced by ancient Chinese culture thousands of years ago. One consequence of these effects is the implementation of the land split grill system that existed for a long time; the ancient place name and field boundaries of the system can still be traced. Chinese writing and many other Chinese developments have been introduced for centuries; for centuries the writing system has gone through many modifications as it does not fit in Japanese . Buddhism began in India and was revised in Central Asia, China and Korea before reaching Japan in the 6 th century - and it had a great influence on Japanese culture life, Buddhism was changed from its pioneering form with time It has developed. Similarly, China's urban design was introduced in the layout of the ancient capi tal of Nara and Kyoto, but the island had no spread.

Friday, October 18, 2019

Systematic Review Paper Research Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Systematic Review - Research Paper Example The article acknowledges that nurses are often so busy and sometimes may lack the skills and tools necessary to make research findings that are clinically relevant and methodologically sound. This reality notwithstanding, the article states that the key to achieving this crucial goal in the nursing practice is through systematic review of literature. It goes further to provide examples of professional groups that have done reviews which have been very critical in attaining evidence-based practice. A good example is review done by the Cochrane Collaboration in evaluating the effects of medical therapeutics. The article explains that nursing practitioners should be motivated to use as well as produce systematic reviews in order to achieve evidence-based practice (Rew, 2011). The attributes of systematic reviews in the nursing practice have been described in the article. Based on the definition of Meadows-Oliver (2009), the article describes systematic review as a synthesis of literatur e aimed at answering a research question which has a clear target and can be replicated. Identifying clearly targeted and specific research questions helps the reviewer to critically analyze and search for published sources that respond to research questions. Systematic review also involves delineation of each step of review process in order to enable other reviewers to verify and replicate the findings. In describing the attributes of systematic review, the article has differentiated it from integrative review by stating that the latter’s approach is the only one that allows for the diverse methodologies combination. However, the process delineated from for systematic review is the same as the process for integrative review, and many of the former have included publications with diverse methodologies (Whittemore & Knafl, 2008). The article has extensively described the rationale for conducting systematic reviews. It states that even though most nurses in the clinical practic e do not get enough time to engage in original research, they ought to comb the existing relevant literature in order to find evidence regarding the kind of practice that can best work for a specific patient care situation. This method has proved to be appropriate in identifying evidence. However, its critics argue that it is often limited in scope, tends to reflect the bias that is inherent in journals that the nurses have employed or nurse’s bias, and it also lacks a clear focus (Coffman, et al, 2009). The article observes that systematic review corrects these limitations and gives nurses more confidence regarding the evidence that they have obtained from the process (Rew, 2011). A systematic review of available research literature gives the reader an efficient synthesis of research findings concerning a particular topic under study. The article further describes the systematic literature review process; it is worth noting that this process is the same to that of the descri ptive research design. The process begins with formulation of the problem that is aimed at describing, synthesizing, and summarizing published findings regarding a particular problem or phenomenon in practice, and presents these findings in ways that answer specific research

Outsourcing Jobs to Foreign Countries Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Outsourcing Jobs to Foreign Countries - Essay Example Noted scholar and business visionary, James Brian Quinn of Dartmouth College, has described outsourcing "one of the greatest organizational and industry structure moves of the century." (Quinn, 1994) Several largest and most successful organizations OF United States are also the world's top providers of outsourcing services. Organizations like ARAMARK, Delphi, EDS, General Electric, IBM, IKON, Unisys, UPS, Xerox, and many others have millions of human resources in their outsourcing businesses. As management expert Peter Drucker articulates, "If you ask me what is the fastest growing industry in United States- it's outsourcing." (Bahli, 2003, p-214) Far from being bad for businesses or their workers, outsourcing is one of the most important and powerful forces available for building successful organizations, creating economic growth, and generating and enhancing jobs. Outsourcing first came to prominence in the early 1990s at a time when the U. S. economy faced a severe recession and the very competitiveness of its businesses was in question. Organizations used outsourcing then to help streamline their operations and to regain their competitive strength. The result was an unprecedented period of economic growth during the latter half of the 1990s. As one enters the mid-2000s, today's challenges may be even more pressing than those of a decade ago. It's hard to think our jobs are moving to other countries and there is nothing we can do. While outsourcing is a big profit for business owners, American workers and their families are the ones who suffer. The most common definition of outsourcing includes turning over a firm or business operations, network operations, software development and maintenance or other IT functions to a provider for a specified time, or generally a few years; sometimes profit can become a major factor and outsourcing becomes permanent. Outsourcing can be between two or more companies in the United States or it can be between the United States and other countries. Another term we use is off shoring, in the U.S. we use this term to specifically refer to outsourcing to other country (Ramanugan and Sandhya, 2003). These terms are used interchangeably and continue to be throughout this research study. Companies in America offshore outsourcing to many countries such as: China India Korea Mexico Philippines Malaysia Russia According to Ramanujan and Sandhya (2006, p.2) "China and India are the two major recipients of outsource work and these countries turn out millions of high-end, college-educated workers, who are well motivated and who make much lower salaries for doing those jobs than their counterparts in the west". So can you "imagine" these people have all the right tools to take our jobs and keep them; not saying we don't need our jobs but Americans just cannot accept any salary, the cost of living is too high. They also states "if you are a secretary or file clerk, if you work in the mail room, or as a middle manager, bank teller, librarian, if you are in any sectors of the retail or whole sale, chances are your jobs will not be here five years from now". What is driving the IT and other jobs offshore Well the labor cost is the primary

Training paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Training paper - Essay Example There are several techniques that can be used to collect information for a needs assessment and these include observation, questionnaire and interview (Needs Assessment 11). The first technique is through observation. The advantage of this technique is that it generates data relevant to work environment; however, this technique requires a skilled observer to be effective. The second technique to collect information is through the use of questionnaires. An advantage of this technique is that one can collect data from a large sample, yet it is not costly. The disadvantage of using questionnaires is the possibility of getting low return rates and inappropriate responses. Conducting interviews is another technique used to collect information for needs assessment. The benefit of this technique is that questions can be modified depending on the response of the interviewee; however, a skilled interviewer is needed to do this. It is also time consuming and difficult to analyze. An organization has to conduct an organizational analysis before designing a training course because it must make sure that the training program is congruent with the strategies of the corporation. It must also take into account that the training program can be supported by the available resources of the company. Support of management and the employees who will take part in the training program is essential for the success of the program. The information acquired from an organizational analysis are the training resources available for the company and the qualities of the people who will be part of the training program. Aside from these information, the analysis will also acquire information on the objectives and goals of the company and the areas in the organization where training is needed (Landy and Conte 295). Organizations should conduct a person

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Games Development and Architectures Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4250 words

Games Development and Architectures - Essay Example The aesthetics of the game are based on what girls might be interested in if they were to travel to Europe: how to order food; how to use public or other transportation; how to find shelter at a hotel or motel or boarding-house or hostel; and how to have a cultural experience in the country of their particular level. The context of the game is that Lupe and Lucky are two best friends going to Europe and so that is the reason why the game is called The Adventures of Lupe Vega (Western Europe Edition Part 1). Subsequent editions could be aptly named with Part 2 dealing with other Western European nations. However, for the first edition (part 1), it was thought that in order to introduce people to the arcade game that only 6 countries would be focused upon: Spain, France, Italy, Germany, the UK, and Ireland. This would definitely appeal to the targeted audience because a lot of young women like to travel and perhaps they might need the skills to go to such countries, but just haven†™t learned much about the culture they are going to travel to, in essence. So this is a very educational game which will appeal to young women. This way, they cannot only have a formal experience which introduces them to the social elements of ordering food in a foreign country, but how to gain access to shelter, transportation, and a cultural experience while on a particular level or country they’re at.... not only have a formal experience which introduces them to the social elements of ordering food in a foreign country, but how to gain access to shelter, transportation, and a cultural experience while on a particular level or country they’re at. 2) Structure of the game system, including a description of all the game components, their interactions, and game mechanics. [1 page] ? The game components include the background setting for 24 different scenes. It also includes menus for each of the six countries’ food tasks, transportation information for six different transportation tasks, six shelter options for the different countries’ shelter tasks, and six different options for each of the countries’ cultural tasks. There may be multiple choices for each of the four tasks in each of the six countries—therefore, people may have choices as to what they would like to complete during their time playing the arcade game. This is a game at a much less speedy pace so people playing the game can take their time on a scene. It’s more of an educational game as well, so there is no time limit a person can spend on one scene. The interactions are usually between two people at a time—the person who the character is approaching and the character herself. Game mechanics are a little bit more complicated, but basically this can all be written in C# code if necessary on the technical end of things. In order to complete successful coding of the game, it is imperative that the coder know the intricacies of the game and what each interaction may consist of, in general. Thus, the coder and the person who developed the game would have to work together on the final coded prototype. This prototype presented here does not include code, rather it provides an overall scope for game

See Attachment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

See Attachment - Essay Example Similarly, the teachers utilize the internet to supplement their lessons. In essence, the internet has benefited education by opening up a substantial amount of knowledge to a broader range of students. Advancement in technology will compel the institutions of higher learning to broaden internet course and change the credentialing structures. It is, therefore, important for schools to introduce free internet on Campus. Through the introduction of free internet in Campuses, students will be able to access online courses provided by different universities. Some students cannot afford tuition fees charged by universities; therefore, by introducing online classes needy students will be able to get  the  learning  using the school’s libraries. According to research 75% college students argue that university tuition is very expensive, and not everyone can afford it (Anderson et al n.d). It is, therefore, important for schools to introduce free internet and expand their online courses for such students. The introduction of free internet in campuses will also boost collaboration among students. The existence of online discussion among students will boost their cooperation, the refore by introducing free internet in schools all students will be able to participate in the discussions. The Internet has also broadened several sectors in US. Therefore, Campuses ought to introduce free internet as it will benefit students and country as a whole. Some of the sector that have improved include Libraries. Many libraries have adopted the use of the internet as they made it possible for students to access their collection of books online. Librarians also argue that the introduction of internet has made it possible for students to access information and it has also changed the way of doing research. Initially, students were required to go through the tiring process just to access books in the libraries

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Training paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Training paper - Essay Example There are several techniques that can be used to collect information for a needs assessment and these include observation, questionnaire and interview (Needs Assessment 11). The first technique is through observation. The advantage of this technique is that it generates data relevant to work environment; however, this technique requires a skilled observer to be effective. The second technique to collect information is through the use of questionnaires. An advantage of this technique is that one can collect data from a large sample, yet it is not costly. The disadvantage of using questionnaires is the possibility of getting low return rates and inappropriate responses. Conducting interviews is another technique used to collect information for needs assessment. The benefit of this technique is that questions can be modified depending on the response of the interviewee; however, a skilled interviewer is needed to do this. It is also time consuming and difficult to analyze. An organization has to conduct an organizational analysis before designing a training course because it must make sure that the training program is congruent with the strategies of the corporation. It must also take into account that the training program can be supported by the available resources of the company. Support of management and the employees who will take part in the training program is essential for the success of the program. The information acquired from an organizational analysis are the training resources available for the company and the qualities of the people who will be part of the training program. Aside from these information, the analysis will also acquire information on the objectives and goals of the company and the areas in the organization where training is needed (Landy and Conte 295). Organizations should conduct a person

See Attachment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

See Attachment - Essay Example Similarly, the teachers utilize the internet to supplement their lessons. In essence, the internet has benefited education by opening up a substantial amount of knowledge to a broader range of students. Advancement in technology will compel the institutions of higher learning to broaden internet course and change the credentialing structures. It is, therefore, important for schools to introduce free internet on Campus. Through the introduction of free internet in Campuses, students will be able to access online courses provided by different universities. Some students cannot afford tuition fees charged by universities; therefore, by introducing online classes needy students will be able to get  the  learning  using the school’s libraries. According to research 75% college students argue that university tuition is very expensive, and not everyone can afford it (Anderson et al n.d). It is, therefore, important for schools to introduce free internet and expand their online courses for such students. The introduction of free internet in campuses will also boost collaboration among students. The existence of online discussion among students will boost their cooperation, the refore by introducing free internet in schools all students will be able to participate in the discussions. The Internet has also broadened several sectors in US. Therefore, Campuses ought to introduce free internet as it will benefit students and country as a whole. Some of the sector that have improved include Libraries. Many libraries have adopted the use of the internet as they made it possible for students to access their collection of books online. Librarians also argue that the introduction of internet has made it possible for students to access information and it has also changed the way of doing research. Initially, students were required to go through the tiring process just to access books in the libraries

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

William Shakespeares play Essay Example for Free

William Shakespeares play Essay Critics believe that William Shakespeares play The Tempest was written around 1610. It opens with a storm, which results in shipwreck, many of the main characters end up stranded. The first time we hear of Prospero is in Act I Scene ii were he is involved in a conversation with his daughter Miranda, during which she accuses him of causing the storm If by your art you have caused this storm. He admits it but in doing so ends up confessing to Miranda all about her past and how they came to be on the island Tis is time I informed thee farther, he does this to try and justify his actions. He has a slave called Ariel I thank thee, master, who comes and informs him of the results of the storm. All of the crew and passengers survived as Prospero asked Ariel not to harm any of them But are they, Ariel, safe? Not a hair perishd. We then begin to learn about another key character, Caliban, who is another of Prosperos slaves Thou most lying slave. Caliban believes that the island belongs to him and that Prospero, who now thinks he owns the island, stole it from his now deceased mother Sycorax This islands mine, by Sycorax my mother. When this conversation ends Ariel begins to start her next task. Ferdinand, who was onboard the ship, is enticed by Ariel song and begins to make his way in towards Miranda. Ariel is invisible at this point so Ferdinand thinks the beautiful sounds are coming from Miranda. Eventually the meet and, with a little help from the invisible Ariel and hidden Prospero, begin to fall in love. We then move onto Act II with the rest of the stranded passengers. Two of them, Antonio and Sebastian begin to gently bully a wise man named Gonzalo Look hes winding up the watch of his wit, they then move into a private conversation of their own. During which they form a plot to kill most of their fellow passengers including Alonso, King of Naples and Sebastians brother, whilst they are asleep. This would mean that they would have a huge power status, as Sebastian would become King of Naples and Antonio is already Duke of Milan. Their plan is foiled by Ariel awakening Gonzalo. Trincolo, jester, and Stephano, a drunken butler, come across Caliban in the woods. Under the influence of alcohol Caliban agrees to serve the drunken pair with the promise that they will kill Prospero. This will make them owners of the island and Caliban thinks they will treat him better than Prospero. However, an invisible Prospero hears them talking about him and sends some spirits to case them away Go charge my goblins. There is then a scene in which all the royal party are gathered, Prosepero at the head. He explains all that has gone on to everybody. He decides to give up his magic and return as Duke of Milan while Miranda and Ferdinand declare their love for one another. From the basic plot Prospero does not seem like a bad person but there are many fine details missed out in the summary. When Prospero arrived on the island its only inhabitant was Caliban who had grown up there. Calibans way of life was very different to Prosperos as he had not grown up with civilization. Prosperos personality appears to have more bad traits than good. His worst are a strong arrogance as he thinks he is life is not only different to Calibans it is also better, which is not true. He does seem to have a few positive traits the main one of these appears to be honesty as he shows his intentions about owning the island and re-gaining his Dukedom but this is counteracted by the way he is very sneaky and tries to influence the forces of nature. This is shown when he repeatedly makes himself or Ariel invisible and speaks to other characters although he were someone else. Two other characters, Caliban and Ariel, play a huge part in deducting his true colors. They appear to be his good side, Ariel and his bad side, Caliban we know he thinks this to as he refers to Caliban as this thing of darkness I acknowledge mine. There are two phases to explain this, one is that they are his yin and yang and the other is to say that they make up a doppelganger. Prosperos most intimate relationship with another character is with Caliban. As well as assuming power over the island he also assumes power and therefore control over Caliban himself. He is infact prejudice against Caliban and thinks Caliban is not fit to rule the island. In the beginning he taught Caliban how to speak and in return Caliban showed him all the special features on the island. But Prospero betrayed Caliban because now he knew all the secrets of the isle Caliban had nothing over him. To try and get back at Prospero Caliban tried to rape Miranda, which Prospero saw as something, a savage would do. He also had another motive; he wanted Miranda to get pregnant so that there would, in theory, be more of Caliban than of Prospero. However as this did not work the idea could never be put into practice but it is the same kind of thing that Caliban thinks could have happened with Trincolo and Stephano. Prospero tries to colonize Caliban but this is not right as Calibans way of life is as respectable as Prosperos within the island community. Prospero also has an unusual relationship with Ariel another of his slaves. Prospero freed Ariel from a cage in which he had been placed by Sycorax. This put Ariel in debt but Prospero always allows him to be his own person and does not try to control him. Also when Ariel has served Prospero for long enough he is allowed to be free I shall miss thee but yet thee shalt have freedom. One of the things that Ariel did for Prospero is teach him to forgive and forget, it was he who spurred Prospero to let the royals free Your charm so strongly works em that if you now beheld them your affections would become tender Dost thou think so, spirit? His final relationships are with his family, Miranda and Antonio. He is very protective of Miranda as she is the only family he has known for a long time. But his relationship with Antonio is a little more complicated. For you, most wicked sir, whom to call brother would even infect my mouth, I do forgive thy rankest fault-all of them; and require my dukedom of thee, which perforce I know thou must restore. This is Prosperos way of forgiving Antonio. It is not very kindly and he insists on reclaiming his title. This portrays that they have a very stretched relationship and Prospero, given the choice, would not be brother to Antonio.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Research Supporting Policy Making in Tourism

Research Supporting Policy Making in Tourism Outline the key requirements for good research and identify how research might support policy-making. Research, defined as a broad range of processes designed to provide policy makers and managers with information that is objective, reliable and as reproducible as possible (Bull, 1999) is a vital business tool used to support policy makers in making decisions. Page (2003) also suggests that tourism policy-making is inherently a political activity, affected by the formal structure of government. A wide range of forces affects policy making, and policy does not exist in a vacuum, because various agencies exist to implement it. Drew (1980) suggests that research is conducted to solve problems and to expand knowledge, and stresses that research is a systematic way of asking questions, a systematic method of enquiry (taken from Bell, 1999). As previously mentioned, policy making is a fundamental business tool, however it must be noted that undertaking research is also a very expensive, time consuming and complex task and researchers must be able to select the right information to avoid further implications. Research activity supports policy-making in a number of ways. First of all if a company is deciding to open a new site in a different country for example, they will need to know who their competitors are, how accessible is the place, where will the labour come from, what impact will this have on the locals? How safe is the area? How will the marketing and advertising be conducted to ensure its success? It is clear from this simple example how complicated and time consuming information gathering can be. Primary data, secondary data, or both may be used in a research investigation. Primary data is original data gathered for a specific purpose as for example interviewing the local community, while secondary data is data that has already been collated for similar purposes, i.e. crime statistics. Data here, could be collected either through quantitative, therefore utilising a positivist approach, or qualitative methods therefore adopting a phenomenological approach. Policy makers will need to know whether that policy is going to be successful, politically/legally/ethnically acceptable, the costs involved, the number of staff needed to implement that policy and whether it fits with the wants, needs and aspirations of the people directed at (Ritchie and Goeldner,1994). Taking into consideration the fact that research can be an expensive and time consuming task and that this may make or break policy decisions, some key requirements for good research have been identified. Bell (1999) suggests that the following are to be considered as key requirements for good research to be conducted: the utility of data, therefore the data that can be used, the cost-effectiveness whereby benefits must be greater than costs; timeliness therefore data that will be there when needed; accuracy, data will need to be accurate; and finally whatever procedure for collecting data is selected, it should always be examined critically to assess to what extent it is likely to be reliable. Reliability is the extent to which a procedure provides similar results under constant conditions on all occasion, however due to the nature of tourism this is not always the case. Three policies examples will now be provided to show how research generated the information that was needed to make those policy decisions. The first policy considered is that of Stonehenge. As suggested by Chris Blandford Associates (2000) this World Heritage Site survived for thousands of years and not so long ago two roads were introduced into the landscape, bringing with them ever increasing traffic and serious environmental problems. Governments proposal to close the A344 and to place the A303 in a 2 Kilometre tunnel where it passes the stone has raised many arguments. The policy for Stonehenge all started with the vision to save this site from environmental degradation and placing it back in its original and unique settings, by eliminating the impact on the environment made by the noise and sight of traffic. The way in which this could be achieved was by closing one road, the A344, and introducing a two kilometre tunnel. It is important to stress that the decision of policy mak ers to close the road and introduce the tunnel to solve the problem, has not been decided overnight, but has been the result of extensive study and consultation since 1991, and alternative ways have been considered prior to the decision. Between 1991 and 1993 other 50 possible routes were considered. At this stage researchers decided to gather primary data, by means of a panel, from local bodies and organisations in order to have their views on the matter. Each representative gave their own view, and during the process all the possible alternatives were considered and discussed. A Public Consultation was held in April 1993, whereby four routes were put forward as a possible solution to the problem. In 1994 two national bodies organised a one-day international to debate solutions for both a road improvement and a new visitor centre for Stonehenge (Chris Blandford Associates, 2000). A Public Exhibition was held in September 1995 and a Planning Conference followed in November 1995 to understand publics and other interested organisations perceptions and ideas of the proposal. A further public consultation was held in 1999, and once again households in the vicinity were consulted (Chris Blandford Associates, 2000). In Nov ember 2000, the Highway Agency conducted primary research to gather qualitative and quantitative data by means of desk study and field

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Terrorism Essay -- essays research papers

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Why do people resort to such violent acts as bombing, assassinations, and hi-jacking? How do individuals and organizations justify these acts of terror? These acts can easily be labeled as terrorist actions. Terrorism is a growing international problem. In the recent years, new terrorist groups and organizations have been forming at an alarming rate. Governments have had little success in their attempts to resolve issues involving terrorism. One of the major problems in discussing terrorism is â€Å"establishing a generally accepted definition.† Terrorism can be described as, â€Å"the unlawful use of fear or force to achieve certain political, economical, or social aims.† By being so difficult to define, organizations like the United Nations have had great difficulty creating policies against terrorism.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  A single individual, a certain group, or even governments may commit terrorist actions. Unlike criminals, most terrorists claim to be dedicated to higher causes. Repeated methods of terrorism involve threats, bombings, and the destruction of property, kidnapping, hostages, executions, and assassinations. There are many reasons that political groups attempt to bring radical change through terrorism. People are often frustrated with their position in society. Some feel persecuted or oppressed because or their race, or religion. Most often, terrorists are known for their dislike of the government. Groups that use terrorist act...

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Critique of Kane and Abel :: Free Essay Writer

Critique of Kane and Abel Jeffrey Archer’s epic novel Kane And Abel could just as easily be two novels; one named Kane and the other Abel, such is the difference between the two characters. From the outset, we are aware of William Lowell Kane’s privilege and of Abel Rosnovski’s poverty. Both are born 15th April, 1905 as male members of the human race. These are the most obvious similarities shared by the two. Their contrasted births introduce us to two different personalities and two different histories, which fate is to overlap at critical moments. Abel is born in a forest in Poland. A young hunter, alert to the sound of screaming, rushes to the mother and child. Mother is dead and the hunter feels responsible for this child: â€Å"Suddenly the young hunter saw the woman, with her dress above her waist, her bare legs sprayed wide apart. He had never seen a woman like that before. He ran quickly to her side and stared down at her belly, quite frightened to touch. There, lying beneath the woman's legs, was the body of a small, damp, pink animal, attached only by something that looked like a rope......† Observe the difference of William’s birth: â€Å".....It never occurred to him, not even for a moment, that the baby might be a girl. He turned to the financial pages and checked the stock market: it had dropped a few points; that damned earthquake had taken $100,000 off the value of his own holdings at the bank, but as his personal fortune remained comfortably over $16 million, it was going to take more than a California earthquake to move him ..."Congratulations, Sir, you have a son, a fine-looking little boy." What silly remarks people make when a child is born, the father thought; how could it be anything but little? The news hadn't yet dawned on him - a son. He almost thanked God. The obstetrician ventured a question to break the silence. "Have you decided what you will name him?" The father answered without hesitation: "William Lowell Kane.....† Abel is born into a world which thereafter conspired to take his mother. William’s father is so unconcerned with the labour that it fails to stir him from his daily routine of studying the â€Å"financial pages†. The pressure for each baby is different. Abel is surrounded by the unconcealed despair and uncertainty which represent being poor.

Friday, October 11, 2019

An experimental engine

AbstractionAn experimental engine with an electrohydraulic camless valvetrain, capable of entire valve gesture, was foremost conceived by the Ford Research Laboratory. Engine with an electrohydraulic camless system neither uses Cams, nor springs, which reduces engine tallness and weight. Hydraulic force both clears and closes the valves during the valve acceleration possible energy of tight fluid is converted into kinetic energy of valve gesture during slowing the energy of valve gesture is returned to the unstable convalescence of kinetic energy is the key to the low energy ingestion. Rather than open and shut the valves with conventional system camless engine employs an electro-hydraulic actuator mounted above the valves. The usage of electrohydraulic actuators eliminates an figure of expensive high preciseness and heavy constituents for the motor including the Cam shaft, rocker weaponries and springs, cam bearings and support constructions including caps, clocking cogwheel, push rods or in the instance of an overhead Cam engine, the belt or concatenation and miscellaneous cogwheels, and lubrication channels and ports. Because of this characteristics valve gesture has become independent. This permits an optimisation of valve event for each operating status without any via media1. IntroductionThe purpose of all attempts is release from a restraint that has handcuffed public presentation since the birth of Internal -Combustion Engines more than a century ago. The engines powering today ‘s vehicles rely on a system of valves to acknowledge fuel and air to the cylinders and allow the fumes to get away after burning. Revolving steel camshaft with preciseness -machined egg shaped lobes, or Cams are the difficult tooled â€Å" encephalon â€Å" of the system. The bulk of conventional automotive engines operate with a valvemotion fixed to the crankshaft rotary motion through the mechanical linkage of the rocker, pushrod, camshaft, and the timing concatenation. Like a really simple package plan that contains merely one set of direction, the Cam ever open and shut the valves at the same precise minute in each cylinders invariably during the shots. They do so irrespective of whether the engine is tick overing or whirling at soap revolutions per minute. As a consequence, optimal public presentation can be achieved at merely one velocity The clash loss of Cams, dependant and inflexible valve train operation, have oning of Cam its inefficient and noisy operation were some of the Parameters which every 1 has to compromise until a new attack of Camless engine was developed. In recent times, the turning demand to better fuel economic system and cut down harmful fumes emanations forced the engine interior decorators to earnestly see alternate methods of valve operation Camless engine is an engine replaced with a to the full variable camless propulsion system which allows complete control of mass transportation into and out of the engine cylinder.the engine uses actuators, detectors and microprocessors to command the lift of valves harmonizing to runing conditions. it gives programmable flexibleness in commanding the engine events. The system offers a continuously variable and independent control of virtually all parametric quantities of valve gesture control this permits optimisation of valve events for each operating conditions without any via media2. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTHistory shows that the thought of a camless internal burning engine has its beginnings every bit early as 1899, when designs of variable valve timing surfaced. It was suggested that independent control of valve propulsion could ensue in increased engine power more late, nevertheless, the focal point of increased power has broadened to include energy nest eggs, pollution decrease , and dependability. Their designs have taken on a assortment of signifiers, from electro-pneumatic to electro-hydraulic These designs are based on electric solenoids opening and shutting either pneumatic or hydraulic valves. The controlled fluid so actuates the engine valves. A comprehensive undertaking utilizing solenoid control of pneumatic actuators was completed in 1991 This research included the development of the actuators, a 16 spot microprocessor for control, and comparative testing between a standard Ford 1.9 litre, spark ignition, port fuel injected four cylinder engine and the same engine modified for camless propulsion.3. CAMSHAFT TECHNOLOGYSince the inception of the car, the internal burning engine has evolved well. However, one invariable has remained throughout the decennaries of ICE development. The camshaft has been the primary agencies of commanding the valve propulsion and timing, and hence, act uponing the overall public presentation of the vehicle. The camshaft is attached to the crankshaft of an ICE and rotates comparative to the rotary motion of the crankshaft. Therefore, as the vehicle increases its speed, the crankshaft must turn more rapidly, and finally the camshaft rotates faster. This dependance on the rotational speed of the crankshaft provides the primary restriction on the usage of camshafts. As the camshaft rotates, Cam lobes, attached to the camshaft, interface with the engine ‘s valves. This interface may take topographic point via a mechanical linkage, but the consequence is, as the Cam rotates it forces the valve unfastened. The spring return closes the valve when the Cam is no longer providing the gap force. Figure 3.2 shows a schematic of a individual valve and Cam on a camshaft.Since the timing of the engine is dependent on the form of the Cam lobes and the rotational speed of the camshaft, applied scientists must do determinations early in the car development procedure that affect the engine ‘s public presentation. The ensuing design represents a via media between fuel efficiency and engine power. Since maximal efficiency and maximal power require alone timing features, the Cam design must compromise between the two extremes. Acknowledging this via media, car makers have been trying to supply vehicles capable of cylinder inactivation, variable valve timing ( VVT ) , or variable camshaft timing ( VCT ) . These new designs are largely mechanical in nature. Although they do supply an increased degree of edification, most are still limited to discrete valve timing alterations over a limited scope.4. ADVANTAGES OF CAMLESS ENGINESElectrohydraulic camless valvetrain offers continuously variable and independent control of all facet of valve gesture. This is important promotion over the conventional mechanical valvetrain. It brings about a system that allows the independent programming of valve lift, valve unfastened continuance and arrangement of the event in the engine rhythm. Therefore making an engine with wholly uncompressed operation to boot, the ECV system is capable of commanding the valve speed, selective valve inactivation and vary activation frequence. It besides offers advantages in packaging. Freedom to optimise all parametric quantities of valve gesture for each operating status without via media. It consequences in better fuel economic system, higher torsion and power, improved idle stableness, lower exhaust emanation. A more elaborate reappraisal of expected betterment associated with optimisation of operation is given belowECV System is holding ability to command the consumption, which reduces the throttling loss. Pumping loss is the major factor doing the comparatively low rhythm efficiency of S.I. engines. Ability to command the consumption valve timing can alter solution. In this instance to cut down the engine burden below the maximal the variable late or early consumption valve shutting to cut down the volume of air in the cylinder at the beginning of compaction. The engine air flow is therefore reduced betterment in low velocity torsion can besides be achieved.To accomplish good rhythm efficiency, most of the burning is taken topographic point in the early phase s of enlargement shot due to utilize of ECV system because of faster burn rate. By detaining the gap of the consumption valve pass the top dead centre ( TDC ) , until the Piston acquires important down stroke velocity, increases the recess air speed & A ; provosts the faster burn rate. So better commixture, leaner air/fuel ratio improves the fuel efficiency & A ; reduces CO emanation.Optimization of valve timing outputs a flatter torsion curve due to betterment in volumetric efficiency. So low velocity torsion & A ; an mean torsion increases over the full sped scope. Engine torsion at high can be increased due to pound bear downing. An electronic control system senses the alterations in the engine velocity & A ; continuously adjusts the valve closing to accomplish the best via media between random-access memory bear downing & A ; compaction ratio at each velocity.With camless operation, a exactly late or early consumption valve shutting can be used to cut down the in-cylinder air co mpaction & A ; prevent knock. This can be good in turbocharged and supercharged engines. A conventional turbocharged engine can use merely a fraction of useable energy contained in its fumes at high velocity. In that a significant portion of fumes gas must short-circuit the turbocharger to forestall inordinate recess air force per unit area and temperature, which could do the engine to strike hard, this is called wastegating The decrease in the volume of air trapped in the cylinder is compensated for by an addition in the recess air force per unit area. So rhythm efficiency improves. Optimize enlargement ratio & A ; internal fumes gas ordinance consequences into the fuel efficiency & A ; decrease in the fumes gases.The effectual enlargement ratio is determined by the timing of the exhaust valve gap. Normally the fumes valve begins to open good in progress of BDC ( bottom dead centre ) to supply adequate clip for the cylinder blow down at high engine velocity. This makes effectual en largement ratio less than it would be if the timing to the BDC. At low velocity nevertheless at that place much more clip for the blow down and the overly early fumes valve gap is uneconomical. With variable exhaust valve clocking this lack can be eliminated by retarding the exhaust valve opening at low velocities and in general optimising the timing as the map of the engine velocity. much faster motion of engine valves in Cam less engine permits the rated of exhaust valve opening even at high velocities, the low velocity gap occur about at BDC. Increased enlargement shot work increases the torsion and particularly at low velocities improves the engine efficiency.Exhaust gas recirculation ( EGR ) straight affect the residuary gas fraction in the cylinder High quality of residuary gas lower the peak burning temperature and therefore reduces the measure of N oxides produced during burning ability to change the timing of exhaust valve shutting eliminated the demand for an external reci rculation.Advancing the fumes valve shutting before the TDC permits to retain the last part of gases go forthing the cylinder, on the other manus the fumes valve gap is well retarded a certain measure of fumes gas is sucked backed into the cylinder from the fumes port by downward traveling the Piston on its early portion of the consumption shot in. Therefore changing the timing of closing controls the measure of residuary gas in the cylinder.In camless engines with a variable valve lift & A ; lift of both recess & A ; exhaust valves can be reduced with the ryduction in engine velocity. Since the energy consumed by the valvetrain goes with the decrease in the valve shot, changing the valve lift as map of the engine velocity can better fuel efficiency at lower velocity.Speed of the recess air is increased which leads to faster burn rate. In camless engines holding two-inlet valves independent fluctuation of lift of each consumption valve varies the distribution of the air flow among t he valves. This provides the elusive agencies of polishing the air flow in the cylinder. Exhaust choking can be achieved by cut downing the fumes valve lift.Ability to tune the valve convergence every bit good as valve lift offers an chance to take down idle velocity & A ; therefore achieve a important decrease in fuel ingestion. Volumetric efficiency is improved hence variable valve speed can be achieved irrespective of the velocity of crankshaft. Significant sum of energy can be saved.Deactivating some of the engine cylinders forces the staying cylinders to run at higher burden to keep the given engine end product. The higher burden reduces specific fuel ingestion. The camless engine control system can selectively deactivate any brace ( recess or fumes ) of hydraulicly coupled valves at any clip by merely disrupting the electric signals to the several control solenoids. This besides applies to fuel injectors, inactivation of valve and fuel injector selectively deactivate single cy linder Deactivation of some of the engine cylinders leads to important betterment in fuel economic system and hydrocarbon emanationCamless system can deactivate valves & A ; cylinders for period every bit short as one rhythm. Ability to selectively jump single fire can be used to better fuel ingestion & A ; exhaust emanations during portion burden operation.Camless engines can supply a really effectual dynamic backup of the vehicle. This can be done via combination increased activation frequence valve inactivation. To execute dynamic endorsing the fumes valves & A ; the fuel injectors are deactivated while consumption valves are opened during each down shot of the Piston. When the consumption valve opens, a blow down of the compressed back into the consumption manifold takes topographic point. Alternatively of being dumped into the ambiance, the tight air can be pumped into a reservoir & A ; so used for engine boosting during vehicle acceleration. This provides regenerative backup, which improves fuel economic system.Camless valve train eliminates the demand for many mechanical constituents, such as camshafts, sprockets, bearings, tappets, springs, etc, which take up a batch of infinite on the top of the cylinder caput. As a consequence, the tallness & A ; the weight can be lower than those of comparable engines with cam-driven valves. There is no such limitation in the camless engines, each valve can busy any place in the cylinder caput, and this creates extra design chances for spacing the valves about the burning chamber.5. Working OF CAMLESS VALVETRAIN:5.1 Hydraulic pendulum: –The Electro hydraulic Camless Valve train ( ECV ) provides continuously variable control of engine valve timing, lift & A ; speed. It uses neither Cam on spring. It exploits the elastic belongingss of a tight hydraulic fluid, which moving as a liquid spring, accelerates & A ; decelerates each engine valve during it ‘s opening & A ; shutting gestures. This is the rule of the hydraulic pendulum. Like a mechanical pendulum, the hydraulic pendulum involves transition of possible energy into kinetic energy & A ; so back into possible energy with minimal energy loss. During acceleration, the energy of the valve gesture is returned to the fluid. This takes topographic point both during valve gap & A ; shutting. Convalescence of kinetic energy is the key to the low energy ingestion of this system. The figure 5.1 shows the hydraulic pendulum construct. The system incorporates high & amp ; low-pressure reservoirs. A little dual acting-piston is fixed to the top of the engine valve that rides in the arm. The volume above the Piston can be connected either to the high or to the low-pressure beginning. The force per unit area country above the Piston is significantly larger than the force per unit area country below the Piston. A hard-hitting solenoid valve that is unfastened during the engine valve acceleration & A ; stopping points during slowing controls the engine valve gap. Opening & A ; shutting of a low-pressure solenoid valve controls the valve shutting. The system besides includes high & amp ; low-pressure cheque valves. During the valve gap, the high-pressure solenoid valve is unfastened, & A ; the net force per unit area force forcing on the dual moving Piston accelerates the engine valve downwards. When the solenoid valve stopping points, force per unit area above the Piston drops, & A ; the Piston decelerates forcing the fluid from the lower volume back into the hard-hitting reservoir. Low-pressure fluid fluxing through the low-pressure cheque valve fills the volume above the Piston during slowing. When the downward gesture of the valve stops, the cheque valve closes & A ; the engine valve remains locked in unfastened place. The procedure of the shutting is similar in rule to that of valve gap. The low-pressure solenoid valve opens, the force per unit area above the Piston drops to the degree in the low-pressure reservoir, & A ; the net force per unit area force moving on the Piston accelerates the engine valve upwards. Then the solenoid valve stopping points, force per unit area above the Piston rises, & A ; the Piston decelerates forcing the fluid from the volume above it through the hard-hitting cheque valve back into the hard-hitting reservoir. The hydraulic pendulum is a spring less system figure 5.2 shows idealized graphs of acceleration, speed & A ; valve raise versus clip for the hydraulic pendulum system. The valves move with changeless acceleration & A ; slowing due to absence of springs. This permits to execute the needed valve gesture with much smaller net drive force, than in systems, which use springs. In spring lupus erythematosus system the engine valve is the lone traveling mass. to minimise the changeless drive force in the hydraulic pendulum the gap & A ; shutting accelerations & A ; slowing must be equal. To accomplish a symmetric hydraulic pendulum following relationship must be maintained between the valve geometry & A ; the forces moving on the valve.6. VALVE OPENING & A ; ShuttingThe valve gap & A ; shutting is the six-step procedure, & A ; in each measure an analogy to mechanical pendulum is shown. In measure 1 the gap ( high-pressure ) solenoid valve is opened, the high-pressure fluid enters the volume above the Piston. The force per unit area above & A ; below the Piston become equal, but because of the difference in the force per unit area countries, the changeless net hydraulic force is directed downwards. it opens the valve & A ; accelerates it in the way of the gap. The other solenoid valve & A ; the two cheque valves remain closed. In measure 2 the gap solenoid valve closes & A ; the force per unit area above the Piston drops, but the engine valve continues its downward motion due to its impulse. The low-pressure valve opens & A ; the volume above the Piston is filled with the low-pressure fluid. The downward gesture of the Piston pumps the hard-hitting fluid from the volume below the Piston back into the hard-hitting rail. This recovers the some of the energy cheapness was antecedently spent to speed up the valve. The ratio of the high & As ; low force per unit area is selected so, that the net force per unit area force is directed upwards the valve decelerates until it exhausts its kinetic energy & A ; its gesture Michigans. In measure 3 at this point the gap cheque valve closes & A ; the fluid above the Piston is trapped. This prevents the return gesture of the Piston, the engine valve remains fixed in its unfastened place trapped by hydraulic force per unit area on the both sides of the Piston. This is called as unfastened dwell place. In measure 4 valve shutting begins. The shutting ( low-pressure ) solenoid valve opens & A ; connects the volume above the Piston with low-pressure rail. The net force per unit area force is directed upward & A ; the engine valve accelerates in the way of shutting, pumping the fluid from the upper volume back into the low-pressure reservoir. The other solenoid valve & A ; the other two cheque valves remain closed during acceleration. In measure 5 the shutting solenoid valve closes & A ; the upper volume is disconnected from the low-pressure rail, but the engine valve continues its upward gesture due to its impulse. Rising force per unit area in the upper volume opens the hard-hitting cheque valve that connects this volume with the high-pressure reservoir. The upward gesture of the wall Piston pumps the fluid from the volume above the Piston into the hard-hitting reservoir. While the. increasing volume below the Piston is filled with the fluid from same reservoir. Since the alteration in volume below the Piston, the net flow of the fluid is into the hard-hitting reservoir. Again as it as the instance during the valve opening energy recovery takes topographic point. Therefore in this system the energy recovery takes topographic point twice each valve event. When the valve exhausts its kinetic energy its gesture Michigans, & A ; the cheque valve stopping points. Ideally this should ever co-occur with the valve sitin g on its place. This is nevertheless hard to accomplish. A more practical solution is to convey the valve to a complete halt a fraction of millimetres before it reaches the wall place & A ; so briefly open the shutting solenoid valve once more. This once more connects the upper volume with the low-pressure reservoir & A ; the high force per unit area in the lower volume brings the valve to its to the full closed status. Measure 6 illustrates the valve seating. After that the, shuting solenoid valve is deactivated once more. For the remainder of the rhythm both solenoid valves & A ; both check valves are closed, the force per unit area above the valve Piston is equal to the force per unit area in To heighten the ability of changing intake air gesture inside the cylinder unequal valve lift of the two consumption valves is used. This besides facilitates shutting of one valve while other remains unfastened. This can besides be done in instance of two exhaust valves. The lift qualifier is used to curtail the gap of one of the mated valves. The conventional representation of the lift qualifier is as shown in the figure 6.7 The qualifier is really a rotatable rod with its axis perpendicular to the plane of paper. It is installed in the cylinder caput between the two intake valves.The communicating chamber is connected to the high-pressure reservoir. As shown in instance A when the qualifier is in the impersonal place, both valves operate in unison. In the instance B the qualifier is turned through 90 & A ; deg ; clockwise senses. In instance C the lift of one of the valve is reduced comparative to other.7. Operation OF SYSTEMIn camless engine the control of valve train is done by microprocessors such as Phillips 80C552 microprocessor constructed on a wire wrap board along with the needed interfacing circuitry. The detectors sense the status of the engine and give end product signal to the microprocessor which gives feedback signal to the actuators which controls the lift of the valves so that coveted public presentation is obtained7.1 Microprocessor: –Using a Philips 80C553 microprocessor based on the Intel 8051 architecture. Provide high velocity end products RS232 communications, multiplexed parallel IO High velocity timers and counters, two external interrupts, four registry Bankss for fast interrupt handling. The processor has to take several existent clip inputs and bring forth a figure of end products.Input signals are:Single pulsation for every revolution of the crankshaftSingle pulsation for every grade of revolution of the crankshaftEnd products:Signal for commanding the solenoid valve to open and shut the recess.Signal for commanding the solenoid valve to open and shut the fumes.Signal to command the ignition timing7.2 Detectors: –Crank Angle Sensor / Single Revolution Sensor Is the most critical feedback constituent in the system. It measures the crankshaft angle and supplies it to the micro accountant to decrypt the place of the crankshaft. Two separate trigger mechanisms. Therefore two end products. One signal for a individual cylinder revolution and another signal for every grade of the crankshaft rotary motion. ( 360 slots in the trigger disc ) The detector consists of a twosome of optical pick-up LEDs that decode the slot signals into a 0-5 V square wave type signal. They count the figure of revolutions that occur in a given sum of clip to mensurate the revolutions per minute. Magnetic manner pickups are much more dependable than optical manner pickups. The grouch angle detector is used to mensurate the engine velocity, ignition angle, convergence, and recess valve unfastened angle. An inverting Schmitt trigger for faster borders shapes the end product pulse wave form. The lambda detector is utile in tunning the overlap period. The lambda detector reading gives a utile indicant if the fumes valve closed excessively late in the period of convergence, therefore leting unburnt fuel to get away. Less O fluxing through the exhaust manifold additions fuel efficiency and creates less pollution. A thermal resistor was used to mensurate the engine temperature. A thermal resistor is a temperature dependent resistance. To mensurate the throttle place a potentiometer was used in a electromotive force splitter constellation.7.3 I/O Interface: –Two informations acquisition cards have been designed utilizing 82C55 programmable peripheral interface IC ‘s. Each card is connected to the computing machine ISA port and has three bi-directional 8bit ports. Address decryption is done through a brace of 74LS138 decipherers. The I/O base reference can be in the scope 300-31CH merely by turning on one of the eight dipswitches. Along with the 3 8bit ports there is a connexion to the Personal computer ‘s +5V, +12V and land tracks. Reading and composing informations to and from the ports is done through C++ _inp ( ) and _out ( ) maps. The chief purpose of the V.V.T. Engine Management System package plan is to expose and log engine parametric quantities for all right tunings an engine. The engine measurings are taken by a assortment of detectors and interfaced to a computing machine through hardware. The package is written in Visual Basic and Visual C++ . Ocular Basic does non hold its ain input/output port read/write maps, where as C++ does, hence the reading and composing maps are written in C++ and compiled into a DLL with Visual C++ . These maps can be called from any Visual Basic application. A Dynamic Link Library ( DLL ) is a library of maps able to be called by an application at runtime. The application and maps within the DLL are non bound until the application plan is executed. Ocular Basic tonss DLLs when the signifier that contains their Declare statement is loaded. By utilizing a assorted linguistic communication theoretical account both Visual Basic and C++ are used for their strengths. C++ is used to execute port I/O port communications and Visual Basic for its ability to acquire a user interface available for requirement proving rapidly.8. Design APPROCHThe camless engine is designed on the footing of conventional four cylinders, four-valve engine. Here head holding to the full integrated camless valve train assembly replaces original cylinder caput incorporating conventional valves, camshafts, springs. A belt driven hydraulic pump is added in topographic point of camshaft. As there is no demand of lubrication entree for engine oil from engine block is closed.8.1 Head: –It is aluminum casted. The casting is accomplished by all hydraulic transitions linking the system constituents. High and low force per unit area reservoirs are integrated in the caput. The Hydraulic fluid is wholly separate from engine oil system. Fluid force per unit area is maintained at deliberate value of 9Mpa. Besides at lower degree it is supplemented with engine coolant. The engine valves are buried wholly in cylinder caput. The solenoid valves are kept on top of caput. All the connexions of Hydraulic pump and Electric accountant are at the back terminal of cylinder caput. Two transverse subdivisions of the cylinder caput are shown in the figure. 8.1.1 and Components8.2.1 Engine Valve: –Here the valve Piston is attached to the top of the valve. Both the valve and Piston are able to skid inside a arm. Sleeve gaps are provided above and below the valve Piston leting hydraulic fluid into consumption or exhaust port. There is tight hydraulic clearance provided between the valve and the arm. But the clearance between arm and cylinder caput is comparatively big. This agreement improves the focus of the valve in its place. The valve is subjected merely to axial tonss. This reduces stresses ; clash and wear. Hydraulic fluid circulated through the Chamberss lubricates and cools the engine.8.2.2 Solenoid Valve: –The solenoid valve has conically shaped magnetic poles. This reduces the air spread at a given shot. The usually closed valve is hydraulicly balanced. A strong spring is required to obtain speedy shutting clip and to cut down escap es between activations. Faster the solenoid valve closing, better the energy recovery. Highest energy losingss occur while shutting of high or low-pressure solenoid valve, as it occurs at highest Piston speed. The valve lift and the place diameter are selected so as to minimise the hydraulic losingss with a big volume of fluid delivered during each gap. Both high force per unit area & A ; low-pressure valves are of same design. fig 8.2.2 shows c/s of the valve8.3 HYDRAULIC SYSTEM8.3.1 High Pressure Pump: –Ability to fit the measure of fluid delivered by the high force per unit area pump with the existent demands of the system at assorted engine velocities and tonss is critical in guaranting low energy ingestion. To conserve mechanical energy needed to drive the pump, its hydraulic end product should be closest to the need.The pump used has a individual bizarre driven speculator and a individual usually unfastened solenoid valve. During each down shot of the speculator barrel is filled with fluid from low-pressure side of the system. Similarly during upstroke of the speculator fluid is pushed back into the low-pressure subdivision every bit long as solenoid valve is unfastened. Closing the solenoid valve causes plunger to pump the fluid through the cheque valve into hard-hitting side of the system. Hence fluctuation in solenoid electromotive force pulse causes fluctuation in measure of high force per unit area fluid delivered by the pump during each revolution.8.3.2 Low Pressure Pump: –A little electrically goaded pump picks up the oil from the sump and delivers it to the recess of the chief pump. Merely a little measure of oil is required to counterbalance for escape loss, and to keep equal recess force per unit area for the chief pump. If any extra oil is pumped it returns to the sump through a low-pressure regulator. A cheque valve assures that recess is non subjected to any fluctuations in force per unit area that may8.4 Cool Down Accumulator: –The system is supplemented with a cool down collector, which functions to keep force per unit area of the system in changing conditions. During normal running status it is to the full charged with oil under same force per unit area as in the recess to the chief pump. When engine stops running, the oil in both subdivisions starts chilling and shriveling. As the system force per unit area drops collector discharges oil into the system, therefore counterbalancing the shrinking and forestalling formation of pockets of oil bluess. Hard-hitting pump is connected to the collector via cheque valve, while the low force per unit area pump is through an opening. After the oil in the system is cooled off, collector maintains the system at atmospheric force per unit area by continuously refilling oil that easy leaks of through the leak-off transition. Accumulator recharges every clip engine is restarted. If engine is off for a long clip collector will dispatch wholly. Hence force per unit area will drop below acceptable, leting force per unit area detector to reactivate pump for a short clip to reload the collector. Use of high hydraulic force per unit area in the system satisfies the demand of maintaining bulk modulus of oil high. In a closed cringle system like this, the force per unit area in low-pressure reservoir can besides be quiet high. Hence the system can run with really high hydraulic force per unit area and still the energy ingestion is in mean scope due to low-pressure derived function.9. FUTURE PlansFuture plans include go oning to polish the engineering for paradigm camless CIDI engines driven by an electronically controlled camless valvetrain:Polish the system and constituent design for higher efficiency and consistenceDesign for three different types of unstable media: hydraulic fluid/engine oil, Diesel fuel, and antifreeze coolantDevelop electronic control algorithms, package, and hardware for valve timing, lift, soft seating, and shutting controlIntegrate the variable valve timing system with little CIDI enginesCharacterize public presentation envelope, energy ingestion, open- and closed-loop repeatability, and sensitiveness to environmental conditions of the camless valvetrain system through both simulation and experimentTest camless valvetrain under assorted engine operation conditionsUpdate dynamic theoretical accounts and simulation of the camless valvetrainDevelop a system and command dynamic theoretical account of CIDI engines and look into the control constellations and schemes by utilizing the proposed actuating system10. DecisionFor the camless operation electrohydraulic valve train is used which control valve timing, lift, speed.Electrohydraulic valve train is built-in with the cylinder caput, which lowers the caput tallness and improves packaging.The system employs the hydraulic pendulum, which contributes low ingestion of energy.Reappraisal of the benefits expected from a camless engine points to significant betterments in public presentation, fuel economic system and emanation over and above what is engines with camshaft based valve trainREF ERANCESâ€Å" Mold of an Electromechanical Valve Actuator for a camless engine, † Yan wang.Higgins Amy, â€Å" Camless Engines Give ‘Peak ‘ Performance, † Machine Design, October 2000, pg. 72.C.Gray â€Å" A Review Of Variable Engine Valve Timing † , SAE paper 880386Variable Valve timing system for Camless Engine Operation, university of Illinois/ University of California, Los Angles.hypertext transfer protocol: // transfer protocol: // transfer protocol: // transfer protocol: // transfer protocol: // transfer protocol: //www.myresearch.htmhypertext transfer protocol: // transfer protocol: //